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At the risk of making y'all wonder why this is such a big deal, I have collected a number of links about the West Memphis Three. In case you missed it (and you easily could have, because it came out of nowhere), on Thursday night, this appeared on Twitter:

@wm3org: West Memphis Three leave prison with all belongings; source says they are not expected back.

Back when I was a wee collegiate Cleo in the dark days of the late '90s, I filled up my elective slots with film studies classes. I didn't get very many, because I was a French/Spanish double major, and by the time you jammed creative writing workshops in on top of that, there wasn't a whole lot of time left. But I managed to take four or five, and thus, I ended raiding the college library and the video store where I worked for foreign films, older indie movies, and documentaries. And one of the ones I watched was Paradise Lost: The Child Murders at Robin Hood Hills.

I'll spare you the details of the actual crime, but suffice it to say that three teenage misfits were arrested, tried, and convicted of the "satanic" murders of three Boy Scouts, largely on the "strength" of a forced confession from Jessie Misskelley, one of the three, who is frequently described as "borderline mentally retarded" (and was also a minor at the time) and agreed to confess after twelve hours of interrogation. This confession, in fact, evolved in the telling as police asked him more and more leading questions, and even the finished version did not match up with the evidence. Almost immediately, he recanted, but the confession was still used against him. Under the Bruton rule, it could not used in the separate trial of Damien Echols and Jason Baldwin... so the jury foreman told his fellow jurors about it anyway, "advocat[ing] for the guilt of the West Memphis Three as a result of the inadmissible Jessie Misskelley statements." This is the tip of the shenanigan iceberg; another witness who claimed that Echols bragged about killing the boys later recanted and revealed that the police had threatened to take away her child if she did not "cooperate." While they were throwing darts at pictures of the defendants. It only got worse from there.

As many have pointed out, the larger context is a deeply religious community (in the middle of a national "Satanic abuse" panic, moreover) deciding that three teenagers with records and mental issues, who had a "love of heavy metal, Stephen King, and wearing black clothing," were de facto Satanists. (Echols was actually interested in Wicca--that is to say, a vastly different thing.) I'm not going to pretend like these guys were angels, but mood disorders and "breaking into a trailer during a rain storm" are a far cry from Satanic rituals and human sacrifice. As Roger Ebert notes,

[Paradise Lost] creates a vivid portrait of a subculture in which Satan is a central figure. Where did Damien, Jason and Jessie hear about satanic rituals? Mostly in church, it would appear. Some members of this community seem to require Satanism as part of their world view; they seize upon the devil to explain what dismays them. Their frequent theme is vengeance, and it is blood-curdling to hear relatives of the victims promise that if the defendants are released, they will track them down and kill them.

The only person in the film who defends a traditional Christian belief system is the grandfather of one victim, who says he believes in forgiveness, and knows he will be reunited in heaven with his loved ones. The others in the room listen without comprehension. We leave the film unsure about who committed the murders, but convinced that an obsession with Satanism extends here far beyond the circle of defendants.
Which is all from his review of the documentary when it first came out in 1996. The most generous interpretation of the police's treatment, the community's reaction, is something called "noble cause corruption." You know they did it--you have to make sure they don't get away with it, they don't hurt someone else. So maybe, you think... facts that don't agree have to be discarded, changed, ignored. False evidence is just recreating the truth.

Or maybe it was just plain ignorance. Nastiness. Personal grudges. Blinding grief. Fear it would happen again. Out-and-out prejudice--those weirdos, they're not like us. Who knows what they've done before--who knows what they'll do if we let them go. Best to lock them away, whether they did it or not. Maybe it was a lot of things.

I do think, though, that once the police and the prosecution had decided the boys were guilty--for whatever reason--they dug their heels in. And then that's the only view they present to the community: "These boys are guilty, and here is only the evidence that agrees with us, and here is a fake expert occultist to tell you why--

Wait, what? Back to Ebert's review. He writes,

At the trial of Damien and Jason, evidence of the satanic orientation of the murders is supplied by a state "expert occultist'' who turns out to have his degrees from a mail-order university that did not require any classes or schoolwork. For the defense, a pathologist testifies that it would be so difficult to carry out the precise mutilations on one of the boys that he couldn't do it himself--not without the right scalpel, and certainly not in the dark or in muddy water.
And then it gets... weird. The strangest figure in the whole case is the stepfather--John Mark Byers--of one of the victims. Over the course of two documentaries, he gives the cameraman a knife that--well, let me let Ebert describe it:

One of these men is John Mark Byers, stepfather of one of the victims, who earlier has been seen in a video at the crime scene, re-creating the crimes in grisly detail while vowing vengeance. In the movie's single most astonishing development, Byers gives the filmmakers a knife. They turn it over to the state. Crime lab reports show traces of blood that apparently came from himself and his stepson. On the witness stand, he testifies that he beat his stepson with a belt at 5:30 p.m. on the day of his death. The welts from the belt buckle previously had been linked to the ritual killing.
In the second Paradise Lost, Byers cheerfully reveals that he's had his teeth removed, which becomes even weirder when you learn that Echols' attorney has noticed that a photograph of one of the victim shows bite marks. What? I don't even know. Byers gave three different explanations for the removal of his teeth. That said, neither the West Memphis Three's teeth nor Byers' original dental records match the bite marks--if they were bite marks at all. (Such is the carousel of confusion that is this case.) Then, as seen in the documentary, "Byers takes a polygraph to prove his innocence but is on a variety of medications that could affect the outcome of the test, including Xanax and Haldol; he passes the polygraph test." Then an entirely different stepfather became an even more compelling suspect, after seven years of private investigation for the defense. Wait... how'd they get the money for that?

Peter Jackson And Fran Walsh To Reveal Financial Support For 'West Memphis 3':

Academy Award-winning film director Peter Jackson and his partner and producer Fran Walsh will reveal their longtime behind-the-scenes support of the 'West Memphis 3" after a court hearing that may free the imprisoned trio. The Lord Of The Rings trilogy helmer with Walsh have "played a leading role" financially and legally behind seven years of efforts to get justice for Damien Echols, Jason Baldwin, and Jessie Misskelley Jr. The filmmaking pair have funded key investigative efforts on behalf of the defense's day-to-day efforts to prove the three men were wrongfully convicted and imprisoned on charges they brutally murdered three 8-year old boys in 1993. This has included financing extensive private investigators over a number of years and the uncovering of crucial new DNA evidence. Jackson and Walsh also have been instrumental in hiring some of the country’s leading forensic experts to reevaluate the case and uncover new witnesses, all of which contributed to the Arkansas Supreme Court’s decision to reopen the case.
This testing found "a hair 'not inconsistent with' Terry Hobbs, stepfather to Stevie Branch, [which] was found tied into the knots used to bind one of the victims." Furthermore, "The hair found in the ligature was consistent with Branch's stepfather, Terry Hobbs, while the hair found on the tree stump was consistent with the DNA of a friend of Hobbs, according to the documents. Police have never considered Hobbs a suspect, and he maintains that he had nothing to do with the murders."

But Hobbs' family accused him of it. Pamela Hobbs, Stevie's mother, has said she believes in the innocence of the West Memphis Three. None of the evidence matches the defendants' DNA.

(Let it also be noted that Jackson and Walsh's contribution is in addition to years of support from actors and musicians, including Eddie Vedder [a lot of support], Natalie Maines, Johnny Depp, Henry Rollins, and Metallica. "The case has drawn national attention, with actor Johnny Depp and singers Eddie Vedder and Natalie Maines trying to rally support for the men's release. Vedder and Maines were at the courthouse on Friday.")

Because that's what happened--Thursday night we saw the tweet that the West Memphis three had suddenly left prison. I'm still not sure how DNA evidence they've been arguing about since 2007 all of a sudden led to August 18, 2011, but the next morning--

@wm3org: Everyone's screaming in joy! It's done. 18 years too long #wm3

@BreakingNews: Judge accepts plea to free 'West Memphis Three,' convicted in Arkansas scouts' deaths after 18 years in prison - AP

What happened was an Alford plea. My understanding of this is that the plea was a maneuver (agreed on by all parties) wherein the state threw out the Three's existing convictions, then recharged them with the crimes and sentenced them to 18 years--time served. Echols, Baldwin and Misskelley are still "convicted," but are allowed to maintain their innocence, while admitting that the prosecution has enough evidence to convince a jury of their guilt. (Note the fine distinction there. As the New York Times puts it, "These pleas allow people to maintain their innocence and admit frankly that they are pleading guilty because they consider it in their best interest.") I read this as the defendants saying, "We didn't do it," and the state saying, "We refuse to admit you didn't do it. But sure, everyone can go home." Because, honestly: if you genuinely thought these three guys had committed satanic child murders, would you honestly let them go? Would you not fight to prosecute them again? Would you not fight to keep them away from society? I suspect the defendants took the deal because they knew a retrial could take years--or they could leave right then. The state, meanwhile, knew it wouldn't win a retrial--not in this day and age; best to just call it a draw. Baldwin, in fact, said that he wanted to fight to clear his name, but "they were trying to kill Damien" and "he had it so much worse than I did."


West Memphis Three now must learn how to live as free men: "But such a startling change in circumstances could have dire effects on the three men locked up as teenagers and now in their mid-30s. They've spent half their lives in prison, missing out on the presidencies of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush, the rise of Twitter and Facebook, wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the election of the first black president, and the creation of reality TV. [...] Shea Wilson, an Arkansas Department of Correction spokesman, says that no inmate has ever walked off death row like Echols. [He] has lived in solitary confinement for ten years, and now he has to learn daily human interaction."

West Memphis Three Feature Film Already In The Works From Atom Egoyan: "Egoyan has been working on this movie for weeks, and in fact, the screenplay has been in development since 2006. Scott Derrickson and Paul Boardman first began adapting the 2003 book Devil's Knot: The True Story of the West Memphis Three." Atom Egoyan is a great filmmaker (go back and check out The Sweet Hereafter, if you haven't seen it), so this is actually a best-case scenario.

@ebertchicago: "Paradise Lost 3: Purgatory" with an update from today, will play at Toronto 2011. It freed 3 innocent men.

(As a side note, "HBO has announced that the first two Paradise Lost documentaries will be available on the network's mobile app, HBO GO, beginning Tuesday, August 23rd, and HBO On Demand beginning Wednesday, August 24th. They will then air on HBO — the first one on Monday, August 29th and the second one on Tuesday, August 30th.")

West Memphis Three: 'Paradise Lost' director talks about their freedom:

[Joe Berlinger] received a call on Tuesday night saying that he needed to get his camera and head down to Arkansas immediately. Something was happening. When Baldwin, Misskelley, Jr., and Echols were released today, he was there watching the whole surreal event unfold through the viewfinder of his camera.
And while Berlinger is overjoyed to see the West Memphis Three finally released, he’s enraged by the conditions of the deal. “I mean, it’s wonderful,” says Berlinger. “I would have made the same decision if I were them., but it’s deeply disturbing that the state of Arkansas did not have the courage to admit that it made a mistake. It’s astounding how long it’s taken for the wheels of justice to grind through.”

Since the Alford plea only substituted new convictions for old ones, I don't know that law enforcement has any incentive to pursue the real killers, whoever they might be. ("We don't think that there is anyone else," the prosecuting attorney said yesterday; he "declar[ed] the case closed.") And I say "killers" because hairs were found indicating (at least) three separate men, and none of them indicate the West Memphis Three or John Mark Byers. For all the strangeness of Byers' actions, there is an astonishing case to be made for Terry Hobbs, "the other stepfather" (link thanks to @ProfessorSweet), and yet no one in an official capacity has ever done anything with it. And there's a hair that indicates someone at the scene who is neither Hobbs nor his friend David Jacoby--and someone was seen "dazed and covered with blood and mud" in a restaurant bathroom that night. No one has ever been able to identify that man. The release is a small measure of justice for Echols, Baldwin and Misskelley; there has been none for the three murder victims. I don't know if there ever will be.

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Just when I thought Peter Jackson and Fran Walsh couldn't get any more badass... :3 Still... #Prays the real murderers will be caught soon.

I ended up removing "UNEXPECTED PETER JACKSON IS UNEXPECTED!" as not being in tone with the rest of the entry. But I enjoy the image of him dropping into the prison with a briefcase full of money LIKE JUSTICE FROM ABOVE. Maybe Fran is fluttering beside him.

Thank you for your summary because it pieced together a lot of the things that I had been seeing in thew news. And who knows how many other people have been hurt by the true killers in the mean time?

I know, right? I just kept reading articles, trying to find out what the latest was, and I kept stumbling over details I'd either forgotten or never known at all. And I couldn't find any single article that would just TELL ME, GODDAMMIT. And it turns out that I'd never even heard the most compelling evidence--and none of it involved Mark Byers, who I was certain had done it.

Edited at 2011-08-20 11:27 pm (UTC)

You know, having read crimelibrary's description of the WM3 case earlier today (I've been following the case ever since I saw the documentary in 2000 in conjunction with Paradise Lost 2) and then reading that bit about Terry Hobbs, he fits the profile of the killer they came up with here, down the near the bottom almost disturbingly.

I'm so happy they're finally free (even with this complete bullshit plea agreement) and that they have enough good people around them to help them transition back into the real world.

I just realized that Crime Library would have a section on it--not terribly updated, though--so I'd just started reading it shortly after I hit post, yeah. My question at this point is--why did Christopher Byers get the worst injuries, if Terry Hobbs did it? What kind of interaction had they had before? I'm still trying to read up on what the hell any of it was supposed to be about, from the killer's point of view--why the boys were killed the way they were. I don't know that anyone can know, at this point.

Thank you for this summary, Cleo. I have followed the WM3 case, well, since it started, and never stopped hoping (and donating, when I could) that they would be released.

I'm not thrilled about the Alford plea, but they're finally free. That's huge.

I genuinely never thought this would happen--partly because the crime scene was so mishandled; I thought they'd never be able to pull out anything conclusive after all this time, so nothing would ever move forward.

I am DYING to know how this just suddenly all happened this week.

This is the best summary of this entire ordeal that I've read. Thanks for putting it together.

I teared up at work as the twitter developments kept pouring in. It's just astonishing.

On the witness stand, he testifies that he beat his stepson with a belt at 5:30 p.m. on the day of his death. The welts from the belt buckle previously had been linked to the ritual killing.

And he wasn't ever prosecuted for that? Not even the abuse? I mean, I know fundie communities have a "spare the rod" approach that's led to child deaths before (who knows, maybe that's what happened here) but- nobody thought to charge him for beating a child with a belt buckle?

Seriously! If you read deeper into the background material, prior sexual abuse of two of the boys was suspected before they were even killed. HEY LET'S GO ARREST THE KIDS WHO LIKE THE HEAVY METAL.

Thanks so much for the links...I'm just so appalled it took so long to see some kind of justice, no matter how half-assed.

Thanks for this. I kept hearing about this but had no idea what it was about. I had no idea it was about Satanism! I assumed it was about racism.

I knew nothing about this case until the other day when mentions of the men being freed started appearing on Twitter. It's like the Guilford Four and Maguire Seven all over again with the authorities insisting on someone's guilt despite the evidence.

This kind of thing makes me seriously sick to my stomach. And how does someone get used to being around people again after solitary confinement and the threat of execution for so long? I hope they have a good solid support system that stays when all the media interest dies down.

Thanks for the links and info.

Yeah. Think of it this way: these guys haven't slept in real beds in 18 years. How do you adjust from that?

Thank you for explaining some of the news I'd seen around. And for helping me with a bit of context for myself.

When I was in high school in the late nineties, I liked wearing black, listening to rock music, and reading Steven King. Now I know why my mother was so concerned that I was going to go join a cult or something. I thought she was crazy, but I didn't realize that her fear was part of the zeitgeist.

Speaking as one of the Resident Gothy Types, it's amazing how overwhelming the Satanic Panic was then. And sadly, it's still around. There are still swarms of babygoths and wee metalheads who have talked about being viewed with fear and suspicion, just because of what music and clothes they like.

Thank you for this! I had heard of the WM3 tangentially through references in music and so forth, but had otherwise no context whatsoever for the news stories.

*goes looking for books*

Great roundup of all of the pertinent info. I didn't know anything about this case until Thursday, and I immediately went looking for info. I also hunted down the two HBO films and watched those. John Mark Byers is WAY too interested in being around the media for him to have had nothing to do with it, IMO. And the thing with the teeth was incredibly suspect. He's SO creepy in the 2nd movie. I don't know, man. I hope Damien and the other boys keep working to find out what really happened, because they deserve to AT LEAST have their names cleared.

One more note...Damien said he was raped repeatedly in prison for over a year, and nobody ever did anything about it. So yet another tragedy out of all of this. Oh - and you might want to add that Byers' wife died suspiciously and unexpectedly as well.

Edited at 2011-08-21 01:16 am (UTC)

Oh, Jesus Christ. I was wondering if the guys were mistreated in prison... and then realized there was probably no way they weren't. Jesus.

Oh - and you might want to add that Byers' wife died suspiciously and unexpectedly as well.


I'm to a point where I feel like something is seriously shady with Byers, but I don't feel like anyone has compelling, actionable evidence to that effect. Not regarding this specific crime, anyway.

I HATE the whole Satanic Panic thing.

Thanks so much for this writeup.

The whole story is kind of mindboggling. I have the feeling I'm going to disappear down the related-link corridor on this one.....

Now you see why it took me 3-4 hours to write. I kept having to climb out of the linkspam rabbit hole.

Really, though, a lot of the links are just citations to show that I'm not making shit up, rather than fifty unique articles. If you go read the Wikipedia page straight through, that'll take care of a lot of it.

First of all, Jason Baldwin is a Big Damn Hero.

This means so much to me because I've followed this case since I saw the first PL when it originally aired and was floored and heartbroken by the way everything was handled, like the hog's ear the police made of the investigation, including but not limited to:

*refusing help from the vastly more experienced Violent Crimes Unit of the Arkansas State Police, likely because the staties were investigating the locals for thefts within the Crittenden Co Drug Task Force
*not securing the crime scene or evidence properly
*like, say, putting evidence in FUCKING GROCERY STORE PAPER BAGS
*wearing the same fucking shoes they wore to the crime scene to the Bojangles where "Mr. Bojangles" was reported
*not keeping a clamp on information about the case and then acting like it was a surprise that Damien had some ideas about what had happened because EVERYONE was talking about it, no duh
*interrogating Jessie for 12 hours and recording a total of 46 minutes of it

and I could go on and on and the fact that I could just hurts me.

I watched PL today and I noticed something today (in my 20/20 hindsight) during the part where they're showing the photos of the boys as they were found*, which I'd totally forgotten they did and was incredibly startled by: They show the Byers and the Hobbses during this part. Mrs. Hobbs and the Byers are stricken. All of them look like they're trying to retreat within themselves. Terry Hobbs, on the other hand, is looking around. Again, this is my hindsight bias, but it struck me as odd.

I was at school on Friday and don't bring my laptop because I don't want to haul it around, so I was obsessively checking Twitter and Google News on my phone all day. When it started happening for real, I was sitting at the library desperately fighting the urge to weep (oh noes, my winged eyeliner!).

I drove through West Memphis a few years back on my return from Little Rock. Creepy place, even in daylight. You can see it in this picture, just across the bridge from Memphis and behind that FREE MAN.

Finally, I believe this deal was orchestrated by the Echols attorneys but even they never believed it would happen like that. I've been following wm3.org on Twitter for a while and was very befuddled when I saw their tweet on Thursday about the hearing because like the PL filmmakers, I was thinking the next big news would come in December.

Finally finally, I keep giggling to myself at how weird the world must be to them now. "It was as if you could see two little 5-year-old kids at their first Christmas. They were trying food they had never seen before, they were fascinated by a cell phone, more fascinated by an iPhone and then the idea you could take pictures with an iPhone totally blew them away, so they were taking a lot of pictures." :D :D :D

*Well, sort of. They did remove the bodies from the creek before the coroner could get there...you know, when they called him a few HOURS after the bodies were discovered.

Yeah, I'm over at Crime Library and that jivepuppi.com site reading more details about the investigation ("investigation") and it's just... what? Do you even go here? Did you just walk off the street and pick up a badge? That's why I stopped with the forced confession and the "witness" who was threatened, because otherwise we would have been here all day.


And I had not heard about Mr. Bojangles AT ALL. I would dismiss it as something strange but unrelated, except for the third hair the DNA investigation found. Does anyone even have a solid idea of who that guy could have been?

You probably know the most about all of this, of the people I've talked to--what's your theory, about what happened/who did it/why/wtf?

A childhood friend of mine was murdered a few years ago. Shot in his condo during a robbery, then it was set on fire. The kid they charged with his killing entered an Alford plea to avoid a second trial; his first ended in a hung jury. At the time, I didn't understand why an Alford plea even existed.

Now I can see a very good reason for the option. Thank you for the summary.

I'm so sorry about your friend. But yes, the Alford plea (from what I understand) can be like saying, "I didn't do it, but the evidence you have makes me look guilty, and there is no way a jury will believe otherwise." I wonder if they agreed to it after the hung jury because neither side was sure they would win a retrial.

Really does something for one's confidence in law enforcement, don't it?

I really hate to add this on such a serious post, but there's this interesting article that I thought you might like, if you haven't already seen it:


Galveston police say the man forced his way into the apartment of a woman he did not know and made growling and hissing noises while biting and hitting the victim in her bed.

Found in a parking lot and wearing only boxer shorts, the pierced and tattooed Bensley claimed he was a 500-year-old vampire who needed to "feed," Galveston Police Capt. Jeff Heyse said.

As you do.

Dude, I don't know why everyone always has to bring Twilight into this, because that is some True Blood shit right there. Edward Cullen ain't never gonna be creepin' around parking lots in his boxers and tattoos. Though I'll admit that an overall media obsession with vampires in general is going to lead to an increase in vampirism as the delusion of choice. But these are people who are going to be having delusions anyway--it's not caused by [insert cultural zeitgeist here]. I remember a few months back I posted two different stories from Seattle--one guy claimed he was a vampire, and one guy claimed he was a werewolf. Also, one of them claimed he had a bomb. I think it was the werewolf.

Glad as hell for justice. And regarding Satanic panic, and all that bullshit--I'll just leave this here:

Yes, that song! I thought of it earlier myself as I reflected on the Satanic Panic and the attitudes it created. Thanks for posting!

Damn. All this after I spend the whole day on the CreepyPasta wiki.

Thanks for going to all the trouble of putting this in plain English.

I've been spending way too much time at the SCP Foundation wiki, if it makes you feel any better.

Holy shit.

As someone who's known nothing about this (I was a toddler when this first went down), thank you for writing this up.

This whole case just screams 'Witch Hunt'. And the fact that everything about the "investigation" is shady as hell...ugh.

But thank goodness those men our free. The damage has been done and is still there but at least THEY can have a bit of closure.

Oh my dear lord, that case description was like an Innocence Project checklist. (I volunteered for an Innocence Project in law school; I'm not just throwing that out there.)

Anyway...once you got to the sources of private funding that helped get these men justice, that's when I really wanted to start retching. Because there is just no way they would be free now without all that money, is there? And there are so many railroaded defendants out there who never had that kind of support, or - like Cameron Todd Willingham - didn't get it until it was too late. In a way, that financial generosity and media attention are just as arbitrary as the prosecutorial discretion that got these three men imprisoned in the first place. And what does that say about our justice system?

Yeah. It took seven years of Lord of the Rings money to set these guys free, basically. It says a lot that they had so many committed supporters raising money for them, and it still wasn't enough.

This is one of the things I get angry about, yeah. To make a comparison--I get angry about the healthcare situation in this country because I have seen so many people who need help and can't get it, and I just want to go to Congress and scream that Livejournal is not an acceptable healthcare plan. I'm glad to help people who are taking up collections, but they shouldn't have to.

In the same vein, I don't think documentaries and celebrity fundraising should have to be necessary legal defenses.

like Cameron Todd Willingham

Oh God, I hadn't read about that. Of course Rick Perry was involved.

I had to do some link-following myself yesterday, to refresh my memory about the details of this case--I saw Paradise Lost at a film festival shortly before it aired on HBO--and the sense of pure dumbfounded incredulity mixed with flaming outrage that I had at the time came roaring straight back as strong as the moment I first had it. How utterly frightening it is that this could not only happen, but go on for so long, and that even in the end the people who perpetrated the injustice weren't even willing to admit they were wrong.

And yeah, I too find myself thinking about how all of this has pretty much cost any reasonable chance of identifying the real killer(s) and how utterly tragic that is.

Thank you so much for all the info. There's a lot to follow up on here.

As glad as I am to hear these men have been released now, it's heartbreaking to think the real murderers have walked free. And how the hell do you recuperate from 18 years in prison, 10 of which Echols spent in solitary confinement? I mean Jesus Christ, that shit is fucked up.

The state had better pay out the frigging nose for their rehab.


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